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A Guide to IRS Form 8949 for Crypto: Gains, Losses & Taxes


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Have you found yourself lost in a maze of crypto buys, sells, trades, and transactions with no idea how to report it all to the IRS? As tax season approaches, crypto investors everywhere break out in hives trying to unravel the tangled ball of yarn that is cryptocurrency tax reporting.

I get it, I really do. Between exchanges, DeFi protocols, wallets, staking rewards, airdrops, forks – it’s a hot mess trying to track everything down to calculate capital gains and losses. And then documenting it all on IRS Form 8949? Shudders sounds worse than the giant maze outside The Shining’s Overlook Hotel.

Well my friends, consider this your unofficial guide to survive and conquer the cryptic maze of Form 8949! I’ll be real with you…this form is a necessary evil if you sold or traded any crypto this year. But have no fear, I’m here to walk you through what this tax tool is, who needs to tackle it, and how to properly fill it out.

Grab some popcorn and let’s unravel this tangled crypto web together!

What is IRS Form 8949 and Why Does it Cause Stress Headaches?

Essentially, Form 8949 is a detailed map to show the IRS exactly where all your crypto “treasures” are buried across wallets, exchanges, DeFi platforms and more. Without it, you leave the poor IRS in the dark about all your coin-selling activity.

This handy form translates all your complex crypto transactions into tax terminology the IRS can digest. It provides nitty-gritty specifics on each coin or token you disposed of for profit during 2022.

Sold crypto for cash? Form 8949 has you covered.

Swapped Bitcoin for Ethereum? Form 8949 to the rescue!

See, you need to report whenever you dispose of crypto – sales, trades, swaps, cashes out…you name it! Form 8949 shines a light on the windy passageways of your crypto holdings so the IRS can find your capital gains and losses.

I won’t pretend completing it is fun. Expect grunt work galore logging all your crypto activity down to the exact dates and dollar amounts. But think of me as your Cryptkeeper guide to lead you through this tedious maze!

Who Needs to Brave the Form 8949 Path?

Before we map out how to tackle this beast, let’s spot who absolutely needs to take on this headache-inducing form.

You likely need to report if:

  • You sold crypto assets like Bitcoin or Ethereum for actual US dollars (fiat) at any point. Even trading back into stablecoins like USDC counts!
  • You exchanged one crypto for a different crypto (like swapping Stellar for Ripple). Yep, the IRS still wants their cut!
  • You disposed of mined coins or tokens from staking, liquidity pools, yield farming, etc for profit.
  • You converted crypto assets to cash by using it to buy stuff directly with crypto debit cards. Oh yes, that counts too!

See the theme here? Basically any time you get rid of crypto assets for profit, even if you never cash out to actual dollars, it’s generally taxable. And by default, that means you need to file Form 8949!

Both individual crypto investors and business entities need to walk this spooky path if they disposed of digital assets in 2022. But fear not, sticking with me ensures you’ll exit the maze unscathed!

Onto mapping out the route through Form 8949…




Navigating the Twists and Turns of Form 8949

Reporting crypto is kind of like escaping a haunted corn maze – it’s tricky, but having the right guidance makes bewitching tax rules less horrible. Let me walk you through it step-by-grizzly step!

Assemble Your Gear to Slay the Beast

Before any epic quest, the heroes need to grab their weapons and tools, right? Treat tax reporting the same way!

Start by visiting to download Form 8949 and the instructions. This guides you in slaying the beast. Since Form 8949 gets attached to Schedule D, grab that form too. Having both in front of you (physically or digitally) lets you fill everything seamlessly.

Dig Up Your Buried Crypto Treasure

Now comes everyone’s favorite part…gathering all your crypto transactions! Pull out any records you have across exchanges, apps, DeFi platforms, etc. For every single sale, swap, trade, or cash out, meticulously log:

  • Date the asset was acquired originally
  • The sale date when you disposed of it
  • Total proceeds received from the sale/trade
  • Your cost basis (the original purchase price)

This treasure trove of transaction data holds the keys to completing Form 8949!

Slice Up Those Capital Gains and Losses

With your crypto data assembled, it’s time for the moment of truth – classifying capital gains and losses. For each asset you disposed:

  • Subtract the original purchase cost from the proceeds earned.
  • If proceeds are higher, that asset sale resulted in a capital gain. Cha-ching!
  • If proceeds are lower, that asset sale resulted in a capital loss. Bummer!
  • Make notes if each gain or loss is short or long-term based on if you held longer than 1 year. Different tax rates apply.

This math unlocks whether you owe crypto taxes or can claim tax deductions! But most importantly, it provides the raw data to pour onto Form 8949.

Fill Out This Beastly Form

With your capital gain and loss measurements in hand, it’s time to meticulously fill out each section of Form 8949:

  • Provide descriptions, trade dates, total proceeds amounts, and cost basis figures for each and every crypto sale or trade.
  • Total up short and long term capital gains in their separate categories.
  • Total up short term and long term capital losses in their separate categories.
  • Double and triple check your work! Cryptic crypto tax rules already cause mental torment, don’t let simple math errors make it worse!

I recommend grabbing a relaxing tea or eating lots of comfort food during this grunt work stage. Take breaks as needed!

Final Boss: Transfer Totals onto Schedule D

Congratulations, you’ve nearly escaped! As a final step:

  • Carry over the short term and long term gain/loss totals from Form 8949 directly onto Schedule D.
  • Submit Schedule D with your tax return, with Form 8949 supplement attached.
  • Breathe a major sigh of relief!

Once attached to Schedule D, the IRS can easily match your tax liability to crypto activity shown on Form 8949. You’ve won!

But…if you still have bone-chilling questions…read on!

Examples From the Cryptoverse

Let’s explore some real-world crypto tax scenarios with Form 8948 examples:

  • Taylor invested $2,000 into Ethereum years ago. This year she cashed out 5 ETH for $10,000. Taylor has a $8,000 long-term capital gain to report on Form 8949/Schedule D.
  • Jesse bought $500 of Dogecoin in 2021 when prices peaked, but sold this year for only $100 when it crashed. Jesse has a $400 short-term capital loss to report on Form 8949/Schedule D.
  • Riley received 1 free Bitcoin from mining back in January 2022. When BTC prices hit record highs, he sold it for $25,000. Riley has $25,000 of ordinary income to report on Form 8949 and Schedule 1.

Whether you have scary losses or exciting gains, Form 8949 catchs them all!

Decrypting More Crypto Tax Mystery

Let’s demystify some other common head-scratching questions:

Q: My exchange doesn’t provide cost basis. Help!

A: I feel your pain! Try using another tracker app or Excel to determine your cost manually. While frustrating, the burden of proof lands on you so do your best!

Q: Do I owe taxes on crypto I got from gifts, airdrops, forks etc?

A: Unfortunately yes, the IRS counts these freebies as regular taxable income at the value received. No exceptions!

Q: Can my crypto losses balance out gains in stocks?

A: Yes! A capital loss can offset capital gains elsewhere. Consider tax loss harvesting to strategically lower tax bills.

  • Provide even more examples of different crypto tax situations and how they would get reported on Form 8949
  • Include snippets or screenshots of what a filled-out Form 8949 would look like using real or made-up data
  • Explain amended returns – when you would need to amend and how crypto taxes impact them
  • Discuss crypto tax tools and software that could help facilitate Form 8949 filing
  • Talk about foreign crypto tax reporting requirements and if they differ from US rules
  • Interview a crypto CPA or tax attorney to get professional perspectives/advice
  • Outline the penalties and fines associated with inaccurate or incomplete crypto tax reporting
  • Share a case study of someone who got audited for crypto taxes and lessons learned

Please let me know if any of those ideas sound interesting to cover as a continuation. Or if you had something more specific in mind for expanding the content, I’m happy to keep writing! There’s a lot more ground we could cover related to properly and thoroughly reporting cryptocurrency transactions to the IRS.


Phew, I don’t know about you but my brain hurts after traversing this spooky maze of crypto tax rules! But at least now you can fearlessly slay Form 8949 on your journey to compliance. Godspeed out there, crypto warriors!