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Trusts in Crypto: Estate Planning and Asset Protection

Table of Contents


Learn how trusts can help with estate planning for cryptocurrency assets and provide protection against threats to your crypto investments.

Trusts in Crypto: Estate Planning and Asset Protection

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Cryptocurrency Ownership and Estate Planning Challenges
  3. Benefits of Trusts for Cryptocurrencies
  4. Types of Trusts for Cryptocurrencies
  5. Using Trusts to Protect Cryptocurrency Assets
  6. Considerations for Funding Cryptocurrency Trusts
  7. Choosing a Trustee for Cryptocurrency Assets
  8. Conclusion


Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum have skyrocketed in popularity and value over the last decade. An estimated 16% of adult Americans now own some form of digital currency. However, many crypto investors have not properly planned for what will happen to their digital assets when they die or if they become incapacitated. This can lead to legal headaches, privacy breaches, unnecessary taxes, and other issues for loved ones left behind. Using trusts specifically designed to hold cryptos can solve many of these estate planning and asset protection challenges.

This guide will explore the benefits of using trusts for cryptocurrencies and provide an overview of different trust structures tailored to digital assets. You’ll learn how these vehicles can not only smoothly transfer your crypto if you pass away but also shield your investments from creditors, civil lawsuits, bankruptcy, divorce, data breaches, and other threats. We’ll also dive into considerations around funding crypto trusts and choosing an appropriate trustee to manage them. Proper estate planning with trusts can give crypto investors invaluable peace of mind.

Why Trusts Are Ideal for Cryptocurrencies

  • Avoid the delays and expenses of probate – transferring through a will still involves court processes
  • Minimize estate taxes – trusts utilize exemptions and valuation discounts
  • Maintain privacy protection cryptos inherently provide
  • Professionally manage assets for heirs who may not be tech-savvy

Cryptocurrency Ownership and Estate Planning Challenges

Cryptocurrencies present unique challenges when it comes to estate planning due to their digital nature, volatility, evolving regulations, and privacy features.

  • Over $140 billion worth of Bitcoin alone is estimated to be locked in inheritances, according to Chainalysis
  • Without clear instructions, heirs may never access cryptos stored in hard wallets
  • Public blockchains transparently expose holdings – privacy coins like Monero offer more anonymity

These factors make estate planning around digital assets vital. Let’s explore the key benefits trusts provide for cryptos specifically.

Benefits of Trusts for Cryptocurrencies

Trusts offer major advantages for managing and transferring crypto wealth, especially when tailored for digital currency estate planning.

Avoiding Probate for Faster Inheritance

Using a will requires assets to go through probate – the court-supervised process for distributing property. This can be extremely lengthy, with the average probate taking 12-18 months. Cryptocurrencies transferred into trusts sidestep this by directly going to beneficiaries based on a trust’s distribution instructions. This provides heirs faster access during the difficult time of grieving a loss.

Minimizing Estate Taxes on Crypto Assets

Proper trust planning, especially with an irrevocable trust, can minimize estate taxes on cryptocurrency holdings valued over $12 million per individual or $24 million per married couple (in 2023). Trusts also utilize other tax advantages like valuation discounts. Without planning, up to 40% of a crypto portfolio’s value can be lost to federal and state estate taxes.

Protecting Privacy of Crypto Holdings

Public blockchains like Bitcoin permanently record all transactions. While ownership isn’t explicitly stated, blockchain analysis can often deanonymize wallets and link identities to holdings. Trusts help maintain privacy protections by avoiding any direct asset transfers to heirs recorded on chain. This also prevents exposes of specific wallet balances after the grantor’s passing.

Types of Trusts Suitable for Cryptocurrencies

There are several types of trusts offering unique benefits for digital asset estate planning and protection.

Revocable Living Trusts

Revocable living trusts avoid probate while letting the grantor maintain control and ability to modify holdings. They continue operating after incapacitation or death. They don’t provide tax benefits but provide excellent inheritance facilitation and privacy. They can hold cash to quickly access or trade cryptos if market volatility requires.

Irrevocable Trusts

Irrevocable trusts can realize tax savings by permanently gifting assets to beneficiaries. However, you forfeit control and can’t unwind transactions. For estate tax planning, these are often funded with enough assets to utilize your lifetime gift tax exemption amount (over $12 million). Cryptocurrency irrevocable trusts specifically help:

  • Gift cryptos up to $16,000 per individual per year tax-free ($32,000 joint)
  • Reduce estate value with discounts on hard-to-value digital assets
  • Shield appreciating assets from capital gains taxes if structured as a Grantor Trust

Testamentary Trusts

Testamentary trusts are created at death through instructions in your will. They don’t require upfront funding but take effect once assets transfer through probate. These are useful to provide inheritance instructions that aren’t easy to facilitate outright like:

  • Setting up recurring payments to heirs over time rather than a lump sum
  • Creating trust funds for minors with distribution standards based on age
  • Supporting special needs beneficiaries while enabling eligibility for government benefits

Using Trusts to Protect Cryptocurrency Assets

Beyond estate planning, trusts also shield cryptocurrency holdings from various threats:

Asset Protection in Case of Litigation

Irrevocable trusts effectively remove assets from your ownership. This protects cryptocurrencies in trusts from seizure in a lawsuit or bankruptcy. Installment sales to “Grantor Trusts” allow you to still profit from investment gains yet insulate assets.

Protection in Case of Divorce

Trusts allow cryptocurrencies to remain separate property rather than marital property if funded before marriage. This prevents holdings or appreciation from being considered joint marital assets divisible in divorce.

Example Crypto Asset Protection Trust

John, age 52, created an irrevocable trust with $10 million of his Bitcoin holdings to fund it. Two years later he marries Eva without a prenuptial agreement. Five years into their marriage, they divorce with significant remaining appreciated value. Eva has no claim to the trust assets.

Guarding Against Data Breaches

Billions have been lost in crypto exchange hacks and SIM swap fraud resulting in wallet draining. Cold storage in trust-owned hardware wallets secures assets offline without companies as vulnerable attack vectors. Adding multi-signature protections ensures no single point of failure or custody.

Considerations for Funding Cryptocurrency Trusts

To utilize trusts’ benefits, you must formally fund them by retitling cryptocurrency ownership. Here are key logistics:

  • Cryptocurrency Wallets – Create new public wallet address(es) belonging to the trust and transfer assets there. This permanently changes ownership.
  • Private Keys – Importantly, you must also convey keys granting access/control of trust wallets to trustees.
  • Trust Agreement Language – Work with an attorney to detail the trust’s governance and ensure it accommodates unique digital asset considerations.
  • Documentation – Carefully document details of assets conveyed to the trust: acquisition dates, cost basis, FMV, exchange records, etc.

It’s imperative to work with legal counsel specializing in cryptocurrency trusts to handle these specifics accurately.

Cryptocurrency Trust Funding Checklist

Before funding a crypto trust, you should:

  •  Set up new cold storage wallet(s) with trust ownership
  •  Formally transfer ownership by sending assets to trust wallet(s)
  •  Securely convey private keys or seed phrases giving trustee access
  •  Obtain appraisals for valuation discounts and gift tax planning
  •  Supply cost basis documentation for capital gains tracking
  •  Update financial plans based on funding amounts

Choosing a Trustee for Cryptocurrency Assets

Selecting an appropriate trustee is a momentous decision given the power over your crypto holdings at stake. Ideal traits to look for include:

Technical Competence with Crypto Management

Expert-level understanding of cryptocurrency handling, security protocols, trading, taxation, and stewarding digital wealth.

Financial Responsibility and Security Policies

Proven fiduciary duty and cybersecurity measures that instill confidence entrusting your crypto estate. Institutional trustees like trust companies provide aggregated protection through bonds and insurance policies covering losses. This also applies if they partner with crypto-native subcustodians for technical support.

Neutral Third Party vs Family Member

While naming a family member or friend saves costs, consider their ability to remain unbiased in trust administration or disputes. Corporate trustees provide neutrality, but their fees for ongoing trust management can subtract from inheritance value over decades.

Trustee Options Comparison Table

Trustee Type Pros Cons
Family Member / Friend No cost, know your values Biases, lack of crypto/legal expertise
Professional Trustee (Trust Company) Expertise, neutrality, security standards High annual fees subtract inheritance
Hybrid Model Mix technical and personal trustees Communication and agreement risks


Estate planning for cryptocurrency assets introduces novel challenges that standard wills are not equipped to handle. Utilizing trusts customized for digital assets allows crypto investors to smoothly and securely transfer wealth to heirs while eliminating numerous risks. Beyond probate avoidance and tax minimization, specialized trusts can provide protective benefits against threats through comprehensive planning. With trillions in crypto assets likely transitioning between generations this decade, trust vehicles will become pivotalestate planning instruments that affluent cryptocurrency holders should strongly consider implementing.